بهبود قابلیت هضم سورگوم دانه‌ای با کاهش تانن و جیره‌نویسی به روش اسیدهای آمینه قابل هضم استاندارد شده در جیره جوجه‌های گوشتی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، بخش علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز،‏ ایران

2 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، بخش علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز،‏ ایران

چکیده

این پژوهش به منظور بررسی روش فرآوری سورگوم دانه‌ای و روش جیره‌نویسی بر عملکرد و قابلیت هضم مواد مغذی با استفاده از 320 قطعه جوجه گوشتی (هشت روزه) در یک آزمایش فاکتوریل 2 × 2 × 2 با دو روش جیره‌نویسی (اسیدآمینه کل و قابل هضم)،فرآوری با پلی‌وینیل پیرولیدون (PVP، صفر و یک درصد) و اسید آلی (صفر و دو درصد مخلوط اسید استیک و اسید پروپیونیک با نسبت 60 به 40) در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با هشت تیمار، چهار تکرار و 10 پرنده در هر تکرار انجام شد. اثر اصلی استفاده از جیره‌نویسی به روش قابل هضم، افزودن اسید و PVP در دوره پایانی (22 تا 42 روزگی) و کل دوره (هشت تا 42 روزگی) باعث بهبود ضریب تبدیل خوراک و افزایش وزن روزانه و اثر اصلی روش جیره‌نویسی قابل هضم و افزودن اسید سبب بهبود گوارش‌پذیری مواد مغذی شد (05/0 ≥P). اثر افزودن اسید و PVP سبب کاهش وزن پانکراس شد (05/0 ≥P). برهم‌کنش PVP، اسید و روش جیره‌نویسی در هیچ‌یک از دوره‌های پرورش بر ویژگی‌های عملکرد معنی‌دار نبود. براساس نتایج تحقیق حاضر، تنظیم جیره براساس اسیدهای آمینه قابل هضم هنگام استفاده از سورگوم دانه‌ای در جیره‌های جوجه‌های گوشتی، به‌دلیل عدم نیاز به هزینه‌های اضافی برای فرآوری سورگوم دانه‌ای و دارا بودن نتایج عملکردی مشابه با جیره‌های فرآوری شده قابل توصیه است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Improvement in sorghum grain digestibility by removing tannin and feed formulation method using standardized amino acid digestibility in broilers

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Reza Rezvani 1
  • Karim Hoshyar 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Iran
2 M.Sc. Graduated Student, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to investigate the processing methods of sorghum grain and diet formulation on performance and nutrients digestibility in broilers. Three hundred and twenty chicks at eight day of age were allotted into eight groups of four replicate with ten chicks per replicate. This research was conducted as completely randomized design arranged in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment using formulation method (total vs. digestible amino acids), Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, 0 vs. 1%) and acid treatment (0 vs. 2%, acetic and propionic acid, 60:40 mixture). Main effects of addition of PVP and acid treatment of sorghum and formulation based on digestible amino acids significantly improved feed conversion ratio and average daily gain during the finishing period (22 to 42 d.) and the overall feeding periods (8 to 42 d.; P≤0.05). Also, acid treatment of sorghum and formulation based on digestible amino acid significantly improved nutrients digestibility during the finishing period (22 to 42 d.) and the overall feeding periods (8 to 42 d.) (P≤0.05). Addition of PVP or acid treatment resulted in a decrease in the weight of pancreas (P≤0.05). The interaction effect of PVP, acid and method of diet formulation was not significant on any performance parameters. The data showed that diet formulation based on digestible amino acid can be more advisable in comparison to sorghum grain processing methods. It can be because of no need for additional processing costs and having the same performance results.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Acetic acid
  • Carcass
  • Performance
  • polyvinylpyrrolidone
  • Propionic acid
  • Tannins
1. عبادی م ر، پوررضا ج، خوروش م و ناظرعدل ک (1376) ترکیب مواد مغذی و انرژی قابل سوخت و ساز 36 رقم سورگوم دانه‌ای و مقایسه آن با دو رقم ذرت. علوم و فنون کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی. 1(1): 67-76.
 
2 . Ahmed AE, Smithard R and Ellis M (1991) Activities of enzymes of the pancreas, and the lumen and mucosa of the small intestine in growing broiler cockerels fed on tannin-containing diets. British Journal of Nutrition. 65(2): 189-197.
3 . Ambula MK, Oduho GW and Tuitoek YK (2001) Effect of sorghum tannin, a tannin binder (polyvinylpyrrolidone) and sorghum inclusion level on the performance broiler chicks. Asian Australian Journal of Animal Science. 14(9): 1276-1281.
4 . Armstrong WD, Rogler JC and Featherston WR (1974) In vitro studies of the protein digestibility of sorghum grain. Poultry Science. 53(6): 2224-2227.
5 . Decandia M, Sitzia M, Cabiddu A, Kababya D and Molle G (2000) The use of polyethylene glycol to reduce the anti-nutritional effects of tannins in goats fed woody species. Small Ruminants Research. 38(2): 157-164.
6 . Dari RL, Penz AM, Kessler AM and Jost HC (2005) Use of digestible amino acids and the concept of ideal protein in feed formulation for broilers. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 14(2): 195-203.
7 . Elzubeir EA and Jubarah SK (1993) Nutritional evaluation of sorghum germ meal as a substitute for sorghum in broiler diets. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 44(1-2): 93-100.
8 . Farran MT, Barbour GW, Uwayjan MG and Ashkarian VM (2001) Metabolizable energy values and amino acid availability of vetch (Vicia sativa) and ervil (Vicia ervilia) seeds soaked in water and acetic acid. Poultry Science. 80(7): 931-936.
9 . Farrell DJ, Mannion PF and Perez Maldonado RA (1999) A comparison of total and digestible amino acids in diets for broilers and layers. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 82(1-2): 131-142.
10 . Gualtieria M and Rapaccini S (1990) Sorghum grain in poultry feeding. World's Poultry Science Journal. 46(3): 246-254.
11 . Mahmood S, Khan MA, Sarwar M and Nisa M (2006) Chemical treatments to reduce anti nutritional factors in salseed (Shorea robusta) meal: effect on nutrient digestibility in colostomized hens and intact broilers. Poultry Science. 85(12): 2207-2215.
12 . Makkar HPS (2000) Quantification of Tannins in Tree Foliage. A Laboratory Manual for the FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project on Use of Nuclear and Related technique to Develop Simple Tannin Assays for Predicting and Improving the safety and Efficiency of Feeding Ruminants on Tanniniferous Tree Foliage. Joint FAO/IAEA, FAO/IAEA of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Animal Production and Health Sub-62 program, FAO/IAEA Working Document. IAEA, Vienna, Austria.
13 . Mitaru BN, Richert RD and Blair R (1983) Improvement of the nutritive value of high tannin sorghums for broiler chickens by high moisture storage. Poultry Science. 62(10): 2065-2072.
14 . Nalle CL, Ravindran V and Ravindran G (2010) Nutritional value of faba beans (Vicia faba L.) for broilers: Apparent metabolisable energy, ileal amino acid digestibility and production performance. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 156(3-4): 104-111.
15 .  NRC (1994) Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th Rev. Ed., National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA. P. 74.
16 . Oduho GW and Baker DH (2005) Some tropical high tannin sorghums andtheir effects on broiler performance. Agricultura Tropica Et Subtropica. 38(3-4): 105-111.
17 . Rayudu GVN, Kadirvel R, Pran V and Kratzer FH (1970) Effect of various agents in alleviating the toxicity of tannic acid for chickens. Poultry Science. 49(5): 1323-1326.
18 . SAS (2004) User’s Guide: Statistics. Version 9.1 Edition. SAS Inst. Inc. Cary, NC.
19 . Scott ML, Nesheim MC and Young RJ (1976) Nutrition of the Chicken. 4th Edition. Ithaca, New York. NY, PP. 7-54.
20 . Szczurek W (2010) Performance and nitrogen output in young broilers fed diets containing different plant by-products and formulated with predetermined ileal digestible amino acid values. Annual Animal Science. 10(3): 285-298.
21 . Towo EE, Svanberg U and Ndossi GD (2003) Effect of grain pre-treatment on different extractable phenolic groups in cereals and legumes commonly consumed in Tanzania. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 83(9): 980-986.
22 . UFFDA (1992) User Friendly Feed Formulation. University of Georgia, Georgia, USA.
23 . Wendt Thiex NJ (2000) Animal feed. In: Horwitz, W. (Editor), Official Methods of Analysis. 17th Edition, Vol. 1. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), Gaithersburg, MD, USA. PP. 1-54.
24 . Widyaratne GP and Drew MD (2011) Effect of protein level and digestibility on the growth and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Poultry Science. 90(3): 595-603.