تأثیر دفعات خوراک‌دهی و افزودن روغن گیاهی به جیره ‌بر عملکرد و رفتارهای تغذیه‌ای گاوهای شیرده هلشتاین

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد، گروه علوم دامی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان

2 استادیار، گروه علوم دامی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان

چکیده

به‌منظور مطالعۀ اثر افزودن روغن به جیره و دفعات خوراک‏دهی بر عملکرد و رفتارهای تغذیه‏ای، از 24 رأس گاو شیرده هلشتاین (12 رأس گاو یک‌بار زایش‌کرده و 12 رأس چند بار زایش‌کرده به‏ترتیب با میانگین وزنی 58±626 و 25±617 کیلوگرم و روزهای شیردهی 44±195 و 39±207 روز) در یک آزمایش فاکتوریل 2×2 با دو سطح روغن در جیره (صفر و 5/2 درصد) و دو برنامۀ غذایی (یک و سه بار در روز) در قالب طرح بلوک‏های کاملاَ تصادفی استفاده شد. اثر تیمارها بر مادۀ خشک مصرفی معنی‏دار نبود، ولی افزودن روغن باعث کاهش نوسانات خوراک‌خوردن به‌ویژه با یک ‌بار خوراک‏دهی در روز شد (05/0 > P). اثر متقابل بین دفعات خوراک‏دهی و افزودن روغن برای تولید شیر تمایل به معنی‏داری داشت (1/0>P). در گاوهایی که سه بار در روز خوراک دریافت کردند، افزودن روغن به جیره‏ سبب افزایش تولید شیر شد (09/0 =P)، ولی این افزایش در یک ‌بار خوراک‏دهی مشاهده نشد. پروتئین شیر گاوهایی که سه بار در روز جیرۀ حاوی روغن دریافت کردند، کاهش یافت (05/0>P). تغذیۀ گاوها یک ‌بار در روز با جیرۀ حاوی روغن موجب بهبود درصد چربی شیر شد (05/0> P). به‏طورکلی افزودن روغن به جیرۀ گاوهای اواسط دورۀ شیردهی می‏تواند تأثیرات مخاطره‏انگیز کاهش دفعات خوراک‏دهی را کاهش دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of feeding frequency and adding plant oil to diet on performance and feeding behavior of lactating Holstein dairy cows

نویسندگان [English]

  • Kamran Akbari Pabandi 1
  • Hamid Reza Mirzaei Alamouti 2
1 Former M.Sc. Student, Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Iran
چکیده [English]

This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding frequency and oil supplementation to the diet on performance and feeding behavior of lactating dairy cows. Twenty four lactating Holstein cows, 12 primiparous, (BW= 626±58 Kg and DIM= 195±44 day) and 12 multiparous, (BW= 617±25 Kg and DIM= 207±39 day) were randomly assigned to four diets contained 2.5 percent supplemental oil or no oil and feeding frequency of 3 or 1 time per day in a randomized complete block design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Frequency of feed delivery and oil supplementation had no effect on dry matter intake. Oil supplementation reduced slug feeding especially with feeding once per day (P<0.05). Feeding frequency and oil supplementation interaction tended to significant for milk yield (P= 0.09), as there was a numerical increase in milk yield in oil 3 time feeding with oil diet. The cows fed oil diet in 3 time feed delivery had lower milk protein (P<0.05), but milk fat increased with 1 time feeding and oil supplementation (P<0.05). The results showed that oil supplementation to mid lactating cows diet can decreased compromised effects of decreasing feeding frequency.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • chewing behavior
  • feeding frequency
  • Holstein cow
  • milk yield and composition
  • supplemental oil
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