1 . AOAC International (2000) Official Methods of Analysis. Vol. I. 17th ed. AOAC International, Arlington, VA.
2 . Bauman DE and Griinari JM (2001) Regulation and nutritional manipulation of milk fat: Low-fat milk syndrome. Livestock Production Science. 70: 15-29.
3 . Bauman DE and Currie WB (1980) Partitioning of nutrients during pregnancy and lactation: A review of mechanisms involving homeostasis and homeorhesis. Journal of Dairy Science. 63: 1514-1529.
4 . Baumgard LH, Corl BA, Dwyer DA and Bauman DE (2002) Effects of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on tissue response to homeostatic signals and plasma variables associated with lipid metabolism in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Animal Science. 80: 1285-93.
5 . Chouinard PY, Corneau L, Butler WR, Bauman DE, Chilliard Y and Drackley JK (2001) Effect of dietary lipid source on conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in milk fat. Journal of Dairy Science. 84: 680-690.
6 . DeVries TJ, von Keyserlingk MAG and Beauchemin KA (2005) Frequency of feed delivery affects the behavior of lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 88: 3553-3562.
7 . Dhiman TR, Zaman MS, MacQueen IS and Boman RL (2002) Influence of corn processing and frequency of feeding on cow performance. Journal of Dairy Science. 85: 217-226.
8 . Dhiman TR, Satter LD, Pariza MW, Galli MP, Albright K and Tolosa MX (2000) Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of milk from cows offered diets rich in linoleic and linolenic acid. Journal of Dairy Science. 83: 1016-1027.
9 . DeVeth MJ, Bauman DE, Koch W, Mann GE, Pfeiffer AM and Butler WR (2009) Efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid for improving reproduction: A multi-study analysis in early-lactation dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 92: 2662-2669.
10 . Gibson JP (1984) the effects of frequency of feeding on milk production of dairy cattle: An analysis of published results. Journal of Animal Production. 38: 181-189.
11 . Hart IC (1983) Endocrine control of nutrient partitioning in lactating ruminants. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 42: 181.
12 . Hart KD, McBride BW, Duffield TF and DeVries TJ (2014) Effect of frequency of feed delivery on the behavior and productivity of lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 97: 1-12.
13 . Harvatine KJ and Allen MS (2006) Effects of fatty acid supplements on feed intake, and feeding and chewing behavior of lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 89: 1104-1112.
14 . Kargar S, Khorvash M, Ghorbani GR, Alikhani M and Yang WZ (2010) Short communication: effects of dietary fat supplements and forage: concentrate ratio on feed intake, feeding, and chewing behavior of Holstein dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 93: 4297-4301.
15 . Kudrna V, Lang P and Mlazovska P (2001) Frequency of feeding with TMR in dairy cows in summer season. Czech Journal of Animal Science. 46: 313-319.
16 . Mantysaari P, Khalili H and Sariola J (2006) Effect of feeding frequency of a total mixed ration on the performance of high-yielding dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 89: 4312-4320.
17 . NRC (2001) Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Sci., Washington, DC.
18 . Phillips CJC and Rind MI (2001) the effects of frequency of feeding a total mixed ration on the production and behavior of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 84: 1979-1987.
19 . Rabiee AR, Breinhild K, Scott W, Golder HM, Block E and Lean IJ (2012) Effect of fat additions to diets of dairy cattle on milk production and components: A meta-analysis and meta-regression. Journal of Dairy Science. 95: 3225-3247.
20 . Shabi Z, Arieli A, Bruckental I, Aharoni Y, Zamwel S, Bor A and Tagari H (1998) Effect of the synchronization of the degradation of dietary crude protein and organic matter and feeding frequency on ruminal fermentation and flow of digesta in the abomasum of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 81: 1991-2000.
21 . Shabi Z, Bruckental I, Zamwell S, Tagari H and Arieli A (1999) Effects of extrusion of grain and feeding frequency on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, and milk yield and composition in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 82: 1252–1260.
22 . Shabi Z, Murphy MR and Moallem U (2005) Within-day feeding behavior of lactating dairy cows measured using a real-time control system. Journal of Dairy Science. 88: 1848-1854.
23 . Sjaunja LO, Baevre L, Junkkarinen L, Pedersen J and Setala J (1990) A Nordic proposal for an energy corrected milk (ECM) formula. Proceedings of the 2-nd Session of International Committee for Recording and Productivity of Milk Animal Paris. Pp. 156-157.
24 . Smith WA and Harris B (1993) the influence of type of forage on the production response of lactation dairy cows supplemented with different types of fat. Journal of Animal Science. 8: 7–21.
25 . Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB and Lewis BA (1991) Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science. 74: 3583-3597.
26 . Vazirigohar M, Dehghan-Banadaky M, Rezayazdi K, Krizsan SJ, Nejati-Javaremi A and Shingfield KJ (2014) Fat source and dietary forage-to-concentrate ratio influences milk fatty-acid composition in lactating cows. Animal. 8: 163-174.
27 . Wu Z and Huber JT (1994) Relationship between dietary-fat supplementation and milk protein-concentration in lactating cows-A review. Livestock Production Science. 39: 141-155.
28 . Yang CM and Varga GA (1989) Effect of three concentration feeding frequencies on rumen protozoa, rumen digesta, and milk yield in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 72: 950-957.