نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مدرس و محقق مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی مرکز خراسان رضوی

2 استاد، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد،مشهد، ایران.

3 دانش آموخته دکتری، گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

چکیده

تأثیر فرآوری حرارتی گندم و آنزیم بر انرژی قابل متابولیسم ظاهری و قابلیت هضم پروتئین و ماده خشک آن و تأثیر استفاده از آنها در جیره بر عملکرد رشد، مورفولوژی ژژنوم و جمعیت میکروبی ایلئوم جوجه‌های گوشتی بررسی شد. به همین منظور از 480 قطعه جوجه گوشتی در یک آزمایش فاکتوریـل 2×4 با سه سطح فرآوری حرارتی گندم در دماهای 55، 70 و 85 درجه سانتیگراد به‌مدت 2/5 دقیقه (همراه با یک تیمار بدون فرآوری) و آنزیم روابیو (صفر و 500 گرم در تن خوراک) در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با هشت تیمار، شش تکرار و 10 قطعه پرنده در هر تکرار در سن 42-25 روزگی استفاده شد. فرآوری حرارتی گندم در 55 و 85 درجه سانتیگراد باعث افزایش انرژی قابل متابولیسم ظاهری آن نسبت به تیمار بدون فرآوری شد؛ به‌طوری که انرژی قابل متابولیسم گندم فرآوری شده در دمـای 85 درجه سانتیگراد، 2/49 درصد بیشتر از گندم فرآوری نشده بود (0/05>P). مکمل آنزیمی انرژی قابل متابولیسم گندم را به‌طور معنی‌داری افزایش داد (0/05>P). فرآوری گندم در هر سه دما ارتفاع ویلی‌های ژژنوم را نسبت به گروه بدون فرآوری کاهش داد (0/01>P). فرآوری گندم در دماهای 70 و 85 درجه سانتیگراد جمعیت لاکتوباسیل‌ها را نسبت به تیمار بدون فرآوری افزایش داد (0/05=P). استفاده از آنزیم در جیره باعث کاهش مصرف خوراک جوجه‌ها و کاهش ارتفاع ویلی‌های ژژنوم شد (0/05>P). بر اساس نتایج این آزمایش، استفاده از مکمل آنزیمی و فرآوری حرارتی دانه گندم انرژی قابل متابولیسم ظاهری آن را بهبود می‌بخشند اما تأثیری بر عملکرد رشد جوجه‌های گوشتی ندارند

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation on the Effect of Using Heat-Processed Wheat Grains in the Diet on Broiler Chickens Performance

نویسندگان [English]

  • seyyed mohammadreza salavati 1
  • Ahmad Hassanabadi 2
  • Mohsen Teimurty 3
  • Aliakbar Salari 3

1 Lecturer and researcher Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Training Center Khorasan Razavi

2 گروه علوم دامی

3 گروه تحقیق و توسعه

چکیده [English]

The effect of heat processing of wheat grains and enzyme supplementation on its apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and digestibility of protein and dry matter as well as the effect of their use in the diet on the growth performance, jejunum morphology and microbial population of ileum were investigated. For this purpose, 480 broiler chickens in a 4×2 factorial experiment with three levels of heat processing of wheat at 55, 70 and 85 °C for 2.5 minutes (with one treatment without thermal processing) and Rovabio enzyme (0 and 500 g/ton of diet) was used in a completely randomized design with eight treatments, six replicates of 10 birds each at the age of 25-42 days. Heat processing of wheat at
55 and 85 °C increased its AME compared to unprocessed treatment; So that the AME of processed wheat at 85 °C was 2.49% higher than unprocessed wheat (P<0.05). Enzyme supplementation significantly increased the AME of wheat (P < 0.05). Wheat processing at all three temperatures reduced the height of jejunum villi compared to the unprocessed group (P < 0.01). Also, processing of wheat at 70 and 85 °C
increased the population of lactobacilli compared to treatment without processing (P = 0.05). The use of enzyme in the diet reduced the feed intake of the birds and the height of jejunal villi (P<0.05). Overall,, enzyme supplementation and heat processing of wheat improve its AME but have no remarkable effect on the growth performance of broiler chickens.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • broiler
  • enzyme supplementation
  • Heat treatment
  • Performance
  • Wheat
1. Abdollahi M (2011) Influence of feed
processing on the performance, nutrient
utilization and gut development of poultry and
feed quality. A thesis presented in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy in Poultry Nutrition.
2. Abdollahi MR, Ravindran V, Wester TJ,
Ravindran G and Thomas DV (2011) Influence
of feed form and conditioning temperature on
performance, apparent metabolisable energy
and ileal digestibility of starch and nitrogen in
broiler starters fed wheat-based diet. Animal
Feed Science and Technology, 168: 88-99.
3. Amuzmehr A (2007) Effect of different levels
of raw and processing rice bran on
performance of broiler chicks. Master’s Degree
in Animal Sciences and natural Resources of
Gorgan University, 1(2): 85-98. (In Persian)
4. AOAC (2005) Association of official
analytical chemists, official methods of
analysis. 18th(Ed). Maryland, USA.
5. Aviagen (2014) Nutrition Specifications Manual:
Ross 308. Aviagen Ltd., Scotland, UK.
6. Bennett CD, Classen HL and Riddell C (2002)
Feeding broiler chickens wheat and barley
diets containing whole, ground and pelleted
grain. Poultry Science, 81: 995-1003.
7. Carre B, Idi A, Maisonnier S, Melcion JP,
Oury FX, Gomez J and Pluchard P (2002)
Relationships between digestibilities of food c
omponents and characteristics of wheats
(Triticum-Astivum) introduced as the only
cereal source in a broiler chicken diet. British
Poultry Science, 43: 404-415.
8. Choct M (1999) Soluble non-starch
polysaccharides affect net utilization of energy
by chickens. Recent Advances in Animal
Nutrition. University of Armdale, Nsw. 31-35.
9. Farhadi A, Sayyahzadeh H and Jafarbavari A
(2008) Effect of Enzyme on diet and Corn,
Wheat and Barley on yield and carcass traits of
broiler chickens. Journal of Agriculture Science
and Natural Resources, 16: 153-167. (In Persian)
10. Ghobadi, Z., A. Karimi. 2012. Effect of feed
processing and enzyme supplementation of
wheat-based diets on performance of broiler
chicks. Journal of Applied Animal Research,
40: 260-266.
11. Gonza´lez-Alvarado JM, Jime´nez-Moreno
ER, La´zaro and Mateos GG (2007) Effect of
type of cereal, heat processing of the cereal
and inclusion of fiber in the diet on productive
performance and digestive traits of broilers.
Poultry Science, 86: 1705–1715.
12. Iji PA, Hughes RJ, Choct M and Tivey DR
(2001) Intestinal structure and function of broiler
chickens on wheat-based diets supplemented
with a microbial enzyme. Asian-Australasian
Journal of Animal Science, 14: 54-60.
13. Kiarie E, Romero LF, Ravindran V (2014)
Growth performance, nutrient utilization, and
digesta characteristics in broiler chickens fed
corn or wheat diets without or with supplemental
xylanase. Poultry Science, 93: 1186-1196.
14. Pickford J R (1992) Effect of processing on the
stability of heat labile nutrients in animal
feeds. International Information System for the
Agriculture Science and Technology, 177-192.
15. Ravindran V, Tilman ZV, Morel PCH,
Ravindran G and Coles GD (2007) Influence of
β-glucanase supplementation on the
metabolisable energy and ileal nutrient
digestibility of normal starch and waxy barleys
for broiler chickens. Animal Feed Science and
Technology, 134: 45-55.
16. Rezaeipour V, Hasanpour M, Janitabar M and
Abdullahpour R (2017) Effects of two native
Iranian wheat cultivars, processing method,
and enzyme supplementation on performance,
carcass, intestinal morphology and microbiota
activity in broiler chickens. Journal of Applied
Animal Research, 45: 517-523 (In Persian)
17. SAS Institute Inc (2004) User’s guide, version
9.1. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.
18. Seifi S (2013) An investigation of the effects
of using an enzyme-probiotic combination on
broilers performance. Iranian Journal of
veterinary Medicine, 7: 299-304.
19. Silversides FG and Bedford MR (1999) Effect
of pelleting temperature on the recovery and
efficacy of a xylanase enzyme in wheat-based
diets. Poultry Science, 78: 1184 –1190.
20. Wiseman J (2000) Correlation between
physical measurements and dietary energy
values of wheat for poultry and pigs. Animal
Feed Science Technology, 84: 1-11.
21. Yaghobfar A, Ila, N, Deghan M and Kucheki A
(2014) The effect of cell wall cell carbohydrates
in wheat and bran in diets with and without
Enzyme activity on serum and intestinal
enzymes, volatile fatty acids, morphology And
bacterial population of broiler chickens. Animal
Science Journal, 107: 253-268.
22. Yaghobfar A, S. Sharifi D and Golestani G
(2014) Effects Natozyme enzyme plus on
metabolizable energy and protein digestibility
of diets containing wheat and rapeseed meal in
broiler chickens. Animal production research,
5(10) (In Persian).