اثرات جایگزینی کنجاله سویای فرآوری ‌شده با کنجاله سویا در سطوح مختلف پروتئین خام جیره بر عملکرد گاوهای شیرده در تنش حرارتی خفیف

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد

2 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه تهران - ابوریحان، تخصص: تغذیه نشخوارکنندگان

3 پردیس ابوریحان/علوم دام و طیور

4 تغذیه دام

چکیده

در این مطالعه، بخشی از کنجاله سویا جایگزین کنجاله سویای فرآوری شده با حرارت در جیره گاوهای شیری تحت تنش حرارتی خفیف شد. از 32 رأس گاو هلشتاین با بیش از یک زایش با روزهای شیردهی 20 ± 110 و تولید شیر 1/4 ± 40 کیلوگرم در روز در یک طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی به‌روش فاکتوریل 2×2 با چهار تیمار و هشت تکرار در دو دوره استفاده شد. جیره‌های آزمایشی حاوی دو سطح 5/15 یا 17 درصد پروتئین خام بودند که در هر کدام کنجاله سویای فرآوری شده با حرارت جایگزین بخشی از کنجاله سویا شد. هر دوره آزمایش 28 روز بود که در هفت روز آخر داده‌های دما و طوبت و عملکرد تولیدی ثبت و جهت اندازه‌گیری قابلیت هضم، فراسنجه‌های خونی و شکمبه‌ای نمونه‌برداری شد. میانگین شاخص حرارتی-رطوبتی در محدوده تنش حرارتی خفیف (دوره اول: 60/70، دوره دوم: 50/71) بود. تیمار حاوی 5/15 درصد پروتئین و کنجاله سویای فرآوری‌شده مصرف ماده خشک و ماده آلی را افزایش داد (05/0>p)، اما این اثر در جیره با 17درصد پروتئین خام و کنجاله سویای فرآوری شده مشاهده نشد. تولید و ترکیبات شیر، قابلیت هضم مواد مغذی و متغیرهای خونی بین تیمارها تفاوتی نداشت. اسید بوتیریک و اسید ایزووالریک مایع شکمبه با تغذیه کنجاله سویا فرآوری شده با حرارت افزایش یافت (05/0>p) اما غلظت این اسیدها تحت تأثیر سطح پروتئین نبود. استفاده از کنجاله سویای فرآوری شده با حرارت در سطوح پایین پروتئین اثر منفی بر تولید و ترکیب شیر نداشت و می‌تواند راهکاری مناسب برای افزایش مصرف خوراک در گاوهای شیری در تنش گرمایی خفیف باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of replacing soybean meal with heat-treated soybean meal in diets varying in preotien content on performance of dairy cows under mild heat stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masoud Norozi-ِDeeyarjan 1
  • ali assadi-alamouti 2
  • Ahmad Afzalzadeh 3
  • mohsen danesh mesgaran 4
1 پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران
3 پردیس ابوریحان دانشگاه تهران
4 گروه علوم دامی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد
چکیده [English]

This study examined the effects of partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM) with heat-treated soybean meal (HSBM) in heat-stressed cows. 32 multiparous Holstein cows (DIM = 110 ± 20; milk yield = 40 ± 4.1 kg) were used in a complete block randomized design with a 2×2 factorial arrangment of treatments. Treatments included two dietary crude protein levels (i.e. 17 and 15.5%) each combined with HSBM partially replaced for SBM. The experiment was conducted in two periods of 28 days with the last seven days for sampling and collection of data of tempreature, nutrient intake and digestibility and blood variables. Average THI showed that cows were in mild heat stress (70.60 and 71.50 for periods 1 and 2, respectively)(p > 0.05). Diets with 15.5% CP and based on HSBM increased intakes of dry and organic matter (p < 0.05); however, this was not observed in diets with 17% CP. Milk yiled and composition, apparent nutrient digestibility and blood variables were unaffected (p > 0.05). Butyric and isovaleric acid were increased in cows received HSBM (p < 0.05); however, level of CP had no effect. Results showed that feeding HSBM in diets with 15.5% CP could be regarded as a nutritional sterategy for improving DM intake of mild heat-stressed cows.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ambient temperature
  • Dairy cow
  • Feed intake
  • heat processing
  • soybean meal
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