1. Alvarez Almora EG, Huntington GB and Burns JC (2012) Effects of supplemental urea sources and feeding frequency on ruminal fermentation, fiber digestion, and nitrogen balance in beef steers. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 171: 136-145.
2 . Association of Official Analytical Chemisis (2000) Official methods of analysis. 17th ed. AOAC, Arlington, VA.
3 . Broderick GA and Kang JH (1980) Automated simultaneous determination of ammonia and total amino acids in ruminal fluid and in vitro media. Journal of Dairy Science. 63: 64-75.
4 . Broderick GA and Reynal SM (2009) Effect of source of rumen-degraded protein on production and ruminal metabolism in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 92: 2822-2834.
5 . Ceconi I, Ruiz-Moreno MJ, DiLorenzo N, DiCostanzo A and Crawford GI (2015) Effect of urea inclusion in diets containing corn dried distillers grains on feedlot attle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine index. Journal of Animal Science. 93: 357-369.
6 . Clark JH, Klusmeyer TH and Cameron MR (1992) Symposium: Nitrogen metabolism and amino acid nutrition in dairy cattle: Microbial protein synthesis and flows of nitrogen fractions to the duodenum of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 75: 2304-2323.
7 . Currier TA, Bohnert DW, Falck SJ, Schauer CS and Bartle SJ (2004) Daily and alternate-day supplementation of urea or biuret to ruminants consuming low-quality forage: III. Effects on ruminal fermentation characteristics in steers. Journal of Animal Science. 82: 1528-1535.
8 . DeVries TJ, Keyserlingk MAG and Beauchemin KA (2005) Frequency of feed delivery affects the behavior of lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 88: 3553-3562.
9 . Ferrell CL, Kreikemeier KK and Freetly HC (1999) The effect of supplemental energy, nitrogen, protein on feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen flux across the gut and liver in sheep fed low-quality forage. Journal of Animal Science. 77: 3353-3364.
10 . Flis SA and Wattiaux MA (2005) Effects of Parity and Supply of Rumen-Degraded and Undegraded Protein on Production and Nitrogen Balance in Holsteins cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 88: 2096-2106.
11 . Fox DG, Tedeschi LO, Tylutki TP, Russell JB, Van Amburgh ME, Chase LE, Pell AN and Overton TR (2004) The cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System model for evaluating herd nutrition and nutrient excretion. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 112: 29-78.
12 . Griswold KE, Apgar GA, Bouton J and Firkins JL (2003) Effects of urea infusion and ruminal degradable protein concentration on microbial growth, digestibility, and fermentation in continuous culture. Journal of Animal Science. 81: 329-336.
13 . Huhtanen P, Nousiainen J and Rinne M (2006) Recent developments in forage evaluation with special reference to practical applications. Agriculture Food Science. 15: 293-323.
14 . Korhonen M, Vanhatalo A and Huhtanen P (2002) Effect of Protein Source on Amino Acid Supply, Milk Production, and Metabolism of Plasma Nutrients in Dairy Cows Fed Grass Silage. Journal of Dairy Science. 85: 3336-3351.
15 . Kozloski GV, Cadorin RL, Harter CJ, Oliveira L, Alves TP, Mesquita FR and Castagnino DS (2009) Effect of suplemental nitrogen source and feeding frequency on nutrient supply to lambs fed a kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum) hay-based diet. Small Ruminant Research. 81: 112-118.
16 . Maekawa M, Beauchemin KA and Christensen DA (2002) Effect of concentrate level and feeding management on chewing activities, saliva production, and ruminal pH of lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 85: 1165-1175.
17 . Mertens DR (1994) Regulation of forage intake. In: Forage Quality, Evaluation, and Utilization. Fahey GC, Colins Jr M, Mertens DR and Moser LE. Pp. 450-493.
18 . National Research Council. NRC (2001) Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Sci., Washington, DC.
19 . Phillips CJC and Rind MI (2001) The effects of frequency of feeding a total mixed ration on the production and behavior of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 84: 1979-1987.
20 . Plaizier JC, Krause DO, Gozho GN and McBride BW (2008) Subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows: The physiological causes, incidence and consequences. Veterinary. 176: 21-31.
21 . Robinson PH and McQueen RE (1994) Influence of supplemental protein source and feeding frequency on rumen fermentation and performance in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 77: 1340-1353.
22 . Robinson PH, Gill M and Kennelly JJ (1996) Influence of Time of Feeding a Protein Meal on Ruminal Fermentation and Forestomach Digestion in Dairy Cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 80: 1366-1373.
23 . Robles VL, González A, Ferret A, Manteca X and Calsamiglia S (2007) Effects of feeding frequency on intake, ruminal fermentation, and feeding behavior in heifers fed high-concentrate diets. Journal of Animal Science. 85: 2538-2547.
24 . Russell B and Hespell RB (1981) Microbial rumen fermentation. Journal of Dairy Science. 64: 1153-1162.
25 . SAS Institute (2004) User's Guide. Version 9.1: Statistics. SAS Institute, Cary, NC.
26 . Van Keulen J and Young BA (1977) Acid insoluble ash as a natural marker for digestibility studies. Journal of Dairy Science. 44: 282-287.
27 . Van Soest PJ (1994) Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant. 2nd ed. Cornell University Press, Comstock Publications, New York, NY, USA, 476 Pp.
28 . Yang WZ, Beauchemin KA and Rode LM (2000) Effects of barley grain processing on extent of digestion and milk production of lactating cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 83: 554-568.