اثر عصاره هیدروالکلی دو گونه آویشن بر گوارش‌پذیری مواد مغذی و وضعیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی جوجه‌های گوشتی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

2 دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی - تخصص:‌تغذیه نشخوارکنندگان

چکیده

اثر عصاره­ هیدروالکلیدو گونه آویشن و فلاوومایسین برگوارشپذیریمواد مغذی و وضعیت آنتیاکسیدانی جوجه های گوشتی، با استفاده از 128قطعهجوجه یک‌ر­وزهسویهراس308درقالب طرحکاملاً تصادفی با چهار تیمار، چهاربررسی شد. تیمارها شامل شاهد، 05/0 درصد عصاره­ آویشن دنائی، 05/0 درصد عصاره آویشن کوهی و 1/0 درصد فلاوومایسین بودند. جوجههایی که در جیره خود فلاوومایسین دریافت کردند، افزایش وزن و ضریب تبدیل بهتری داشتند (05/0p<). تغذیه جیره‌های حاوی آویشن اثری بر افزایش وزن نداشت ولی پرندگانی که  جیره حاوی  عصاره آویشن دنائی دریافت کردند، ضریب تبدیل بهتری نسبت به گروه شاهد داشتند (05/0p<). ارتفاع پرز و نسبت ارتفاع پرز به عمق کریپت در ژژنوم پرندگانی که با جیره حاوی عصاره آویشن دنائی و یا  فلاوومایسین تغذیه شدند، بیشتر بود(05/0p<). سطح پرزها در ژژنوم پرندگانی که با جیره‌های حاوی افزودنی تغذیه شدند، افزایش یافت(05/0p<). تغذیه جوجه‌ها با جیره‌های حاوی عصاره آویشن دنائی و فلاوومایسین سبب کاهش ضخامت لایه ماهیچه­ای در ژژنوم آنها شد (05/0p<). گوارش­پذیری ماده­ خشک و ماده آلی با مصرف عصاره آویشن کوهی و فلاوومایسین افزایش یافت (05/0p<). ابقای نیتروژن در پرندگانی که جیره‌های حاوی افزودنی دریافت کردند، بیشتر از پرندگان شاهد بود (05/0p<). فعالیت سوپراکسید دیسموتاز و گلوتاتیون پراکسیداز خون پرندگان تغذیه‌شده با عصاره آویشن بیشتر از پرندگان شاهد بود (05/0p<). میزان مالون­ دی­آلدئید گوشت ران پرندگان دریافت‌کننده جیره حاوی عصاره آویشن کوهی در مقایسه با سایر تیمارها کاهش یافت (05/0p<). بر اساس نتایج این تحقیق،  استفاده از  05/0 درصد عصاره آویشن دنائی در جیره جوجه‌های گوشتی ضریب تبدیل خوراک، شاخصهای ریخت­سنجی مخاط روده و وضعیت آنتی­اکسیدانی بدن  را بهبود می­بخشد و میتواند به‌عنوان یک ترکیب محرک رشد پیشنهاد شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Two Thyme Species Hydroalcoholic Extract on Nutrient Digestion and Antioxidant Status of Broiler Chickens

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Malekzadeh 1
  • Mir Daryoush Shakouri 1
  • Hossein Abdi Benemar 2
1 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
2 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili,
چکیده [English]

The effect of two thyme species hydroalcoholic extracts and flavomycin on nutrients digestibility and antioxidant status of male broilers was assessed in a 42-day trial using 128-day-old Ross 308 chicks by employing a completely randomized design with four treatments and four replicates. The experimental treatments consisted of control, 0.05 percent Thymus daenensis extract, 0.05 percent T. kotschyanus extract and 0.1 percent flavomycin. Throughout the experiment, the chickens on flavomycin diet had a better weight gain and feed conversion ratio (P<0.05). Although thyme diets had no effect on weight gain, the birds on diet containing T. daenensis extract had better feed conversion ratio than those on the control diet (P<0.05). The jejunal villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio increased in birds fed with diets containing T. daenensis extract and flavomycin (P<0.05). However, villus surface area of jejunum was increased in birds on diets containing the additives (P<0.05). Feeding chickens with diets containing T. daenensis extract and flavomycin decreased the thickness of muscle layer of jejunum (P<0.05). Digestibility of dry matter and organic matter was increased by T. kotschyanus extract and flavomycin (P<0.05).Nitrogen retention was increased in birds fed with all additives (P<0.05). The activity of blood superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in birds receiving thyme extract was higher than those of the control group (P<0.05). Malondialdehyde of thigh meat declined in birds receiving diets containing T. kotschyanus extract in comparison with other treatments (P<0.05). Based on the results of the study such as improved feed conversion ratio, intestinal mucosal morphometry and body immune status parameters, application of 0.05 percent T. daenensis extract can be suggested as a growth promoter in broiler diets.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Flavomycin
  • Glutathione peroxidase
  • Malondialdehyde
  • Morphometry
  • superoxide dismutase
1.      Amiri H (2012) Essential oils composition and antioxidant properties of three thymus species. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 1-8.
2.      Apajalahti J (2005) Comparative gut microflora, metabolic challenges, and potential opportunities. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 14: 444-453.
3.      Azwanida NN (2015) A review on the extraction methods use in medicinal plants, principle, strength and limitation. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 4(3): 1-6.
4.      Bölükbaşi SC, Erhan MK and Ozkan A (2006) Effect of dietary thyme oil and vitamin E on growth, lipid oxidation, meat fatty acid composition and serum lipoproteins of broilers. South African Journal of Animal Science. 36: 189-196.
5.      Dorman HJD and Deans SG (2000) Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 88: 308-316.
6.      Fenton TW and Fenton M (1979) An improved procedure for the determination of chromic oxid in feed and feces. Canadian Journal of Animal Science. 59: 631-634.
7.      Geyra A, Uni Z and Sklan D (2001) Enterocyte dynamics and mucosal development in the posthatch chick. Poultry Science. 80(6): 776-782.
8.      GhasemiPirbalouti A, Rahimmalek M, Malekpoor F and Karimi A (2011) Variation in antibacterial activity, thymol and carvacrol contents of wild populations of Thymus daenensis subsp. daenensis Celak. Plant Omics Journal. 4(4): 209-214.
9.      Hady MM, Zaki MM, Abd ELGW and Korany Reda MS (2016) Assessment of the broilers performance, gut healthiness and carcass characteristics in response to dietary inclusion of dried coriander, turmeric and thyme. International Journal of Environmental and Agriculture Research. 2(6): 153-159.
10.   Hashemipour H, Kermanshahi H, Golian A and Veldkamp T (2013) Effect of thymol and carvacrol feed supplementation on performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, fatty acid composition, digestive enzyme activities, and immune response in broiler chickens. Poultry Science. 92: 2059-2069.
11.   Hernandez F, Madrid J, Garcia V, Orengo J and Megias MD (2004) Influence of two plant extracts on broilers performance, digestibility, and digestive organ size. Poultry Science. 83(2): 169-174.
12.   Iji PA, Saki AA and Tivey DR (2001) Intestinal development and body growth of broiler chicks on diets supplemented with non-starch polysaccharides. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 89(3): 175-188.
13.   Jamroz D, Williczkiewicz A, Wertelecki T, Orda J and Skorupinska J (2005) Use of active substances of plant origin in chicken diets based on maize and locally grown cereals. British Poultry Science 46: 485-493.
14.   Jo C and Ahn DU (1998) Fluorometric analysis of 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in turkey. Poultry Science. 77: 475-480.
15.   Kalra AK, Gupta S, Turan A, Mahmood S and Mahmood A (2010) Ethanol-induced changes in lipid peroxidation of enterocytes across the crypt-villus axis in rats. Indian Journal of Gastroenterology. 29(1): 23-27.
 
16.   Lee SJ, Umano K, Shibamoto T and Lee KG (2005) Identification of volatile components in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and thyme leaves (Thymus vulgaris L.) and their antioxidant properties. Food Chemistry. 91: 131-137.
17.   Mountzouris KC, Tsitrsikos P, Palamidi I, Arvaniti A, Mohnl M, Schatzmayr G and Fegeros K (2010) Effects of probiotic inclusion levels in broiler nutrition on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, plasma immunoglobulins, and cecal microflora composition. Poultry Science. 89(1): 58-67.
18.   Ni JJ, Ju TT and Piao XS (2012)  Effect of flavomycin on performance, gut morphology and intestinal microflora in broilers. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 11(10): 1669-1673.
19.   Ragaa NM, Korany RMS and Mohamed FF (2016) Effect of thyme and/or formic acid dietary supplementation on broiler performance and immunity. Agriculture and Agricultural Science. 10: 270-279.
20.   Rahimi S, Teymouri Zadeh Z, Karimi Torshizi MA, Omidbaigi R and Rokni H (2011) Effect of the three herbal extracts on growth performance, immune system, blood factors and intestinal selected bacterial population in broiler chickens. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 13: 527-539.
21.   Samanya M and Yamauchi KE (2002) Histological alterations of intestinal villi in chickens fed dried Bacillus subtilis var. natto. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology. 133: 95-104.
22.   Sharifi SD, Dibamehr A, Lotfollahian H and Baurhoo B (2012) Effects of flavomycin and probiotic supplementation to diets containing different sources of fat on growth performance, intestinal morphology, apparent metabolizable energy, and fat digestibility in broiler chickens. Poultry Science. 91(4): 918-927.
23.   Steenfeldt S, Hammershøj M, Müllertz A and Jensen JF (1998) Enzyme supplementation of wheat-based diets for broilers: 2. Effect on apparent metabolisable energy content and nutrient digestibility. Animal Feed Science and Ttechnology. 75(1): 45-64.
24.   Wang HL, Shi M, Xu X, Pan L, Zhao PF, Ma XK, Tian QY and Piao XS (2016) Effects of flavomycin, bacillus licheniformis and enramycin on performance, nutrient digestibility, gut morphology and the intestinal microflora of broilers. The Journal of Poultry Science. 53(2): 128-135.
25.   Xu ZR, Hu CH, Xia MS, Zhan XA and Wang MQ (2003) Effects of dietary fructooligosaccharide on digestive enzyme activities, intestinal microflora and morphology of male broilers. Poultry Science. 82(6): 1030-1036.
26.   Youdim KA and Deans SG (2000) Effect of thyme oil and thymol dietary supplementation on the antioxidant status and fatty acid composition of the ageing rat brain. British Journal of Nutrition. 83: 87-93.