1 . تشفام م.، پوستی ا.، رادمهر ب. و نوروزیان ا (1367) بررسی مورفولوژیکی خملهای روده کوچک گوسفند. دانشکده دامپزشکی. 43: 219-207.
2 . Broz J and Frigg M (1986) Effect of beta-glucanase on the feeding value of broiler diets based on barley or outs. Archiv fur Geflugelkunde 50: 41-47.
3 . Chiou PWS, Lu TW, Msu JC and Yu B (1996) Effect of different sources of fiber on the intestinal morphology of domestic geese. Animal Science. 4: 539-550.
4 . Choct M, Hughes RJ, Wany J, Bedford MR, Morgan AJ and Anniston G (1996) Increased small intestinal fermentation is partly responsible for the anti-nutritive activity of non-starch polysaccharides in chickens. British Poultry Science. 37: 609-621.
5 . Choct M (2004) Enzymes for the feed industry past, present and future. Xll Worlds Poultry Congress Istanbul Turkey. Pp. 8-13.
7 . FAO (2010) FAO Statistical Yearbook. http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/am081m/am081m00.htm.
8 . Ghasemi NA, Tahmasbi AM, Moghaddam GH, Mehri M, Alijani S, Kashefi E and Fasihi A (2006) The effect of phytase and saccharomyces cervisiae (SC47) Supplementation on performance, serum parameters, phosphorous and calcium Retention of Broiler chickens. International Journal of Poultry Science. 52: 162-168.
9 . Hampson DJ (1986) Altevation in piglet small intestinal structure at weaning. Research of Veterinary Science 40: 32-40.
10 . Kongbuntad W, Khanongnuch C and Lumyong S (2006) Efficacy of xylanase supplementation produced from thermoascus aurantiacus SL 16 W in diet on thai Natire chicken performance. International Journal of Poultry Science. 55: 463-469.
11 . Keshavarz K (2000( Reevaluation of non phytate phosphorus requirement of growing pullets with and without phytase. Poultry Science. 79: 1143-1153.
12 . Mondal MK, Panda S and Biswas P (2007) Effect of microbial phytase in soybean meal based broiler diets containing low phosphorous. International Journal of Poultry Science. 63: 201-206.
13 . Nnenna OP, Emeka NP and Okpoko CL (2006) Performance of broiler chicks fed maize offal-based diets supplemented with Roxazyme G enzyme. International Journal of Poultry Science. 57: 607-610.
14 . NRC (1994) Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. National Academy press, Washington, DC.
15 . Ravindran V, Bryden WL and Kornegay ET (1995) Phytates: Occurrence, bioavailability and implication in poultry nutrition. Poultry and Avian Biology Reviews. 6: 125-143.
16 . Ravindran V, Selle PH and Bryden WL (1999) Effect of phytase supplementation individually and in combination with glycanase on the nutritive value of wheat and barley. Poultry Science. 78: 1588-1595.
17 . Ravindrun V, Morel PCH, Partridge GG, Hruby M
and Sands JS (2006) Influence of an Escherichia coli-Derived phytase on Nutrient utilization in Broiler starter fed diets containing varying concentrations of phytic Acid. Poultry Science. 85: 82-89.
18 . SAS Institute (2001) SAS Users Guide Statics. Version 8.2. ed. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC. USA.
19 . Sebastlan S, Toucnbum SP, Chavez ER and Lague DC (1996b) Efficacy of supplemental microbial phytase at different dietary calcium levels on growth performance and mineral utilization of broiler chickens. Poultry Science. 75: 1516-1523.
20 . Selle PH, Cadogan DJ and Bryden WL (2003)
Effects of phytase supplementation of phosphorus-adequate, lysinedeficient, wheat-based diets on growth performance of weaned pigs. Australian Journal of Agriculture Research. 54: 323-330.
21 . Sieo CC, Abdullah N, Jan WS and Hot YW (2005) Influence of B-Glueanase- Producing Lactoba cinus strains on intestinal characteristics and feed passage Rate of Broiler chickens. Poultry Science. 84: 734-741.
22 . Wang ZR, Qiao SY, Lu WQ and Li DF (2005)
Effect of enzyme supplementation on performance Nutrient Digestibility, Gastrointestinal morphology, and volatile fatty Acid profiles in the hindgut of Broilers fed wheat-based Diets. Poultry Science. 84: 875-881.
23 . Wu YB, Ravindran V, Thomas DG, Birtles MJ and Hendriks WH (2004) Influence of phytase and xylanase, individually or in combination, on performance, apparent metabolisable energy, digestive tract measurements and gut morphology in broilers
fed wheat-based diets containing adequate level of phosphorous. British Poultry Science. 45: 76-84.
24 . Wu YB, Ravindran V, Thomas DG, Birtles MJ and Hendriks WH (2004) Influence of phytase and xylanase, individually or in combination, on performance, apparent metabolisable energy, digestive tract measurements and gut morphology in broilers fed wheat-based diets containing adequate level of phosphorous. British Poultry Science. 45: 76-84.
25 . Xia MS, Hu CH and Xu ZR (2004) Effects of copper-bearing montmorillonite on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, and intestinal micro flora and morphology of male broilers. Poultry Science.
26 . Yi ZE, Kornegay T and Denbow DM (1996) Supplemental microbial phytase improves zinc utilization in broiler. Poultry Science. 75(4): 540- 576.
27 . Zyla K, koreieski J, Swiatkiwicz W, Kujawski M, Piirone J and Ledovx DR (2000) Effects of phosphorolytic and cell wall-degrading enzymes on the performance of growing broilers fed wheat- based diets containing different calcium levels. Poultry Science. 79: 66-76.
28 . Zyla K, Koreieski J, Swiatkiwicz WA, Kujawski M, Piironen J and Ledovx DR (2000) Effects of phosphorolytic and cell wall-degrading enzymes on the performance of growing broilers fed wheat- based diets containing different calcium levels. Poultry Science. 79: 66-76.